Comparative study on eucalyptol and camphor rich essential oils from rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum Sm. and their pharmacological, antioxidant and antifungal activities

The aim of present study was to evaluate chemical composition and different biological activities viz., pharmacological and antioxidant activities of essential oils. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry while biological activities were evaluated by standard protocols. Essential oils of Hedychium spicatum Sm. from two different ecological niches viz; Nainital (Site-I) and Himachal Pradesh (Site-II) of India revealed the qualitative and quantitative chemo-diversity. Both the oils were dominated by oxygenated terpenoids. Major marker compounds identified were eucalyptol, camphor, linalool, α-eudesmol, 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, and iso-borneol. Both the oils exhibited anti-inflammatory activity suppressing 17.60 % to 33.57 % inflammation at 100mg/kg b. wt. dose levels compared to ibuprofen-treated group (40.06 %). The sub-acute inflammation in oils-treated mice groups (50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt.) increased on day 2 but showed a gradual decrease from day 3 onwards and then recovered to normal by day 10. The antinociception percentage for doses (50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt.) ranged from 33.70-40.46 % in Site-I and 30.34-42.39 % in Site-II compared to standard drug, ibuprofen (43.08 %). The oils also showed a good antipyretic effect by suppressing Brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) induced pyrexia after oil dose injection. The oils also exhibited good antioxidant activity.

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